iological evolution has produced nanoscopic structures and machines that perform an astonishing range of complex functions in the living cell. We seek to understand how they work, how they evolved and how they can be engineered. 

Because the architecture of living systems is hierarchical, with function at one level emerging from interacting components at lower levels, we take a multi-level approach. Accordingly, our research strategy combines  tools from microbiology, (bio)physics, experimental evolution and synthetic biology to explore the relevant mechanisms from the quantum level up to the level of molecules, cells, populations and ecosystems. 


We are also interested in the evolution of ecological diversity and nanoparticle toxicity.